A journal is usually a literary, academic and research paper-like publication containing mainly articles written by eminent researchers, academics and others in authority. Unlike newspapers and magazines, most journals are meant for a technical or academic audience, not common readers. But, in some countries, some scholars started writing journals either to make their work more accessible to the public or to generate revenue. Journal can be of various types: business Journal, scientific Journal, medical Journal, academic Journal etc. In the UK, there are many professional Journal clubs that are interested in publishing high quality Journal.
A Journal can be identified as a scholarly journal with a dual-entry bookkeeping system that includes journal entries for financial accounting and business transactions. The major part of the Journal is concerned with accounting and business transactions and accounting concepts; however, some Journal topics are also available for other disciplines. Journal can be classified into different categories, e.g., legal Journal, medical Journal, economics Journal etc. Though there has been considerable growth in the number of Journal published in reference books, the Journal still continues to retain its prominent position among all journals in reference books.
Generally, a Journal comprises original research and document, and interpretations thereof, together with accompanying text and illustrations pertaining to the paper. For the Journal, original research comprises Journal articles, book reviews, conference proceedings, book chapters, and reviews and commentaries. On the other hand, documents are the interpretations and explanations of data and other information based on previous researches and original data or facts and are generally a part of Journal writings.
While maintaining records, transactions are recorded in journals for convenient future reference. Journal transactions are recorded in various formats including microfilm, hardcopy, computerized and paper documents. Besides, Journal writings contain references regarding law, medicine, business, education, economics etc. However, for the Journal it is important to record only those transactions that are legal, unless otherwise specified in the rules.
For recording Journal transactions, the Journal includes journal entries and memoranda, which are considered as historical Record of Events, i.e., personal and business records. Entries may be in the form of letters, telegrams, impressions, vouchers, official papers, personal memoirs etc. In addition, the Journal includes a register of journal entries, which is used to keep an index of entries made in the Journal. The register also comprises the entries made in journals, previously recorded or in journals newly recorded. Also, special reference books and journals, which are specially printed for keeping registers, are available for making the Journal register.
Other features of the Journal include journal entries, which are usually of a general nature, and journal statements, which contain general information or account, accounting information relating to the transactions recorded in the journal. The Journal may also include journal obituaries, which are published to the interested parties. The Journal may also comprise the register of deeds, which is a public record. The most important feature of the Journal is that it provides the means by which a company can trace its real property and assets. Also, by recording the events and transactions in the Journal, the company ensures accountability of the business and provides a historical record of the business.